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Computes the exact value of the q-th percentile of column A (e.g. 0.5 = median, or 0.9 = the 90th percentile). A can be any numeric column, and q can be any scalar float between zero and one.

This function differs from PERCENTILE_CONT in that it always outputs a value from the original array. The value it chooses is the smallest value in A such that the CUME_DIST of all values in the column A is greater than or equal to q. For example, consider the dataset [2, 8, 8, 40]. The CUME_DIST of each of these values is [0.25, 0.75, 0.75, 1.0]. If we sought the percentile q=0.6 we would output 8 since it has the smallest CUME_DIST that is >=0.6.