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In many situations, Bodo can save the binary resulting from the compilation of a function to disk, to be reused in future runs. This avoids the need to recompile functions the next time that you run your application.

Recompiling a function is only necessary when it is called with new input types, and the same applies to caching. In other words, an application can be run multiple times and process different data without having to recompile any code if the data types remain the same (which is the most common situation).


Caching works in most (but not all) situations, and is disabled by default. See caching limitations below for more information.

Caching Example

To cache a function, we only need to add the option cache=True to the JIT decorator:

import time
import pandas as pd
import bodo

def mean_power_speed():
    df = pd.read_parquet("data/cycling_dataset.pq")
    return df[["power", "speed"]].mean()

t0 = time.time()
result = mean_power_speed()
if bodo.get_rank() == 0:
    print("Total execution time:", round(time.time() - t0, 3), "secs")

The first time that the above code runs, Bodo compiles the function and caches it to disk. The code times the whole function call, which includes compilation time the first time the function is run:

power    102.078421
speed      5.656851
dtype: float64
Total execution time: 4.614 secs
In subsequent runs, it will recover the function from cache and as a result, the execution time will be much faster:

power    102.078421
speed      5.656851
dtype: float64
Total execution time: 0.518 secs


data/cycling_dataset.pq is located in the Bodo tutorial repo.

Cache Location and Portability

In most cases, the cache is saved in the __pycache__ directory inside the directory where the source files are located. The variable NUMBA_DEBUG_CACHE can be set to 1 in order to see where exactly the cache is and whether it is being written to or read from.

On Jupyter notebooks, the cache directory is called numba_cache and is located in IPython.paths.get_ipython_cache_dir(). See here for more information on these and other alternate cache locations. For example, when running in a notebook:

import os
import IPython

cache_dir = IPython.paths.get_ipython_cache_dir() + "/numba_cache"
print("Cache files:")
Cache files:

Cached objects work across systems with the same CPU model and CPU features. Therefore, it is safe to share and reuse the contents in the cache directory on a different machine. See here for more information.

Cache Invalidation

The cache is invalidated automatically when the corresponding source code is modified. One way to observe this behavior is to modify the above example after it has been cached a first time, by changing the name of the variable df. The next time that we run the code, Bodo will determine that the source code has been modified, invalidate the cache and recompile the function.


It is sometimes necessary to clear the cache manually (see caching limitations below). To clear the cache, the cache files can simply be removed.

Tips for Reusing the Cache

As explained above, caching is invalidated for a function any time any of the source code in the file changes. If we define a function and call it in the same file, and modify the arguments passed to the function, the cache will be invalidated.

Caching File IO

For example: a typical use case is calling an IO function with a different file name.

def io_call(file_name):

The above function would need to be recompiled if the argument to io_call changes from mydata.parquet. By separating into separate files the function call from the function definition, the function definition does not need to be recompiled for each function call with new arguments. The cached IO function will work for a change in file name so long as the file schema is the same. For example, the below code snippet

import IO_function from IO_functions

would not need to recompile IO_function each time file_name is modified since IO_function is isolated from that code change.

Caching Notebook Cells

For IPython notebooks the function to be cached should be in a separate cell from the function call.

def io_call(file_name):

If a cell with a cached function is modified, then its cache is invalidated and the function must be compiled again.

Current Caching Limitations

  • Changes in compiled functions are not seen across files. For example, if we have a cached Bodo function that calls a cached Bodo function in a different file, and modify the latter, Bodo will not update its cache (and therefore run with the old version of the function).
  • Global variables are treated as compile-time constants. When a function is compiled, the value of any globals that the function uses are embedded in the binary at compilation time and remain constant. If the value of the global changes in the source code after compilation, the compiled object (and cache) will not rebind to the new value.


During execution, Bodo will print information on caching if the environment variable NUMBA_DEBUG_CACHE is set to 1. For example, on first run it will show if the cache is being saved to and where, and on subsequent runs it will show if the compiler is successfully loading from cache.

If the compiler reports that it is not able to cache a function, or load a function from cache, please report the issue on our feedback respository.